Drone Drone Fly Away, Respect The nap Everyday!
by Gena Bentall and Alicia Amerson
A female sea otter rests in a kelp bed with her pup on her belly as another sea otter nearby surfaces from the depths with a crab dinner. To the general public this offers an alluring window into an offshore world.
Aerial views of sea otters captured by drones give scientists and recreational drone pilots a new and intriguing perspective. Until just a few years ago, these kinds of perspectives on marine mammals were limited to research scientists in planes.
Now, with personal drones widely available to the public and becoming increasingly affordable, bird's-eye-views of nature are more readily at hand. In our excitement and enthusiasm at being freed from the bonds of gravity to view wildlife from new heights, we may have forgotten to consider whether our presence in the air has a negative impact on the creatures below.
Less than a century ago a very small population of around one hundred sea otters lived off the coast of Big Sur—remnants of a maritime fur trade that nearly wiped them out. With extensive support from government, university, and non-governmental organizations the sea otters of California are slowly recovering.
As they re-colonize places from which they were once extirpated, sea otters’ favorite habitats increasingly overlap with locations popular for coastal recreation, creating a perfect recipe for human-wildlife conflict.
In November 2017, at the 3rd Annual Central California Coastal Wildlife Disturbance Symposium, Sea Otter Savvy program coordinator Gena Bentall met up with AliMoSphere leader, Alicia Amerson.
Sea Otter Savvy is an outreach and research program working to protect sea otters from human-caused disturbance on the densely populated California coast.
AliMoSphere is a woman-owned small business working to reduce wildlife disturbance from drones, educate proper drone use through best practices, and get drones into more conservation research projects to reduce biologist mortality in small manned plane survey.
Our common interest is sharing a message to protect sea otters on land and in the water from drone disturbance. An initiative that we hope spreads to the protection and stewardship of drones for all marine wildlife using the California coast.
Some tips about sea otters and drones that we are passing along to you:
Sea Otter Lifestyle Quick Tips:
Those sea otters who live in areas of highest density are often struggling to meet their daily minimum caloric requirement, and diving and swimming away from human activities causes them to use energy they can’t afford to waste.
Swimming and diving expend more calories in sea otters than most other behaviors.
Sea otters groom and roll in the water to increase air bubbles in their fur which keeps them warm in the cold Pacific waters. They don't have a layer of blubber like other marine mammals. Time spent attending to their fur is vital for survival.
Moms with pups are expending extra energy and should be given extra space and consideration. Respect the moms!
For those unfamiliar with marine mammal behavior, some homework will help you recognize what is normal, and what is an animal's response to disturbance. Plus you have two amazing resources at your fingertips - by connecting with Sea Otter Savvy and AliMoSphere you get information about sea otters and reducing drone disturbance.
Stress - The invisible impact. Signs of stress can be difficult to observe in wild animals.They are unable to tell us with words how they are feeling. Scientists studying black bears originally thought the drones did not disturb the bears, who seemed to calmly sit and observe when the drones were near. Then, reviewing data from heart rate monitors on the bears, they discovered that a bear’s heart rate rose 400% (Ditmer, et al) when the drone was near.
Imagine your heart rate raising 400% and not knowing how to respond! How long would it take for you to calm down? These bears appeared calm but they reacted to drones in ways we can’t easily see. Sea otter moms with young pups may be reluctant to swim of dive away from an encroaching drone or kayak, but may be suffering stress nevertheless.—we truly have no idea how drones impact wildlife.
Alimosphere is excited to join with our new partner Sea Otter Savvy, to foster a community of wildlife aware drone pilots. Connect with Gena and Sea Otter Savvy here.
Ditmer, M.A. et al. Bears Show a Physiological but Limited Behavioral Response to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Current Biology , Volume 25 , Issue 17 , 2278 - 2283
Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Responsible Use to Help Protect Marine Mammals
Mapping the Pier
Drones are useful tools for many researchers, architects, emergency responders, and are adaptable to many different environments. The aerial imagery is generating insights to help us manage and collaborate on projects worldwide.
Today I started out with a simple mission: to map Crystal Pier and participate in the #12daysofmaps on twitter. I downloaded DroneDeploy on my iPad. From there I created a flight plan to survey the pier in the DroneDeploy App for iOS. Then I linked to AirMap.io so that I would have flight information at my fingertips. After checking the status of my equipment at home I packed up and headed to Garnet Avenue in Pacific Beach.
Social innovation drives the quest for our mission at Alimosphere. We are here to establish a culture around the use of drones in around the world by preserving our wildlife and wildlands through research, education, and outreach. With a key message to reduce human-wildlife disturbance while focusing on using the technology for many new applications we know that mapping is one way we can make this happen.
On a side note regarding human-wildlife disturbance and mention the opportunities that are provided to us for free when we view wildlife from a pier. A pier has many advantages for reducing wildlife disturbances - one happens to be land-based whale-watching. Piers provide an amazing advantage for viewing birds, whales, dolphins, fishes (even sharks on occasion) without contributing to carbon emissions or creating noise pollution in the water. Go stand on a pier and look out to the horizon or under your feet. During the day or at night you can see a completely new species swimming around the pier
Once I got the pier my drone and equipment were ready to go. I made sure the blades were secure to the rotors, connected the battery, turned on the controller and launched DroneDeploy. The survey area came up on the iPad and I checked the preflight checklist. Once I had "green" checks I was ready to fly.
The drone rotors fired up and went straight up to the designated altitude of 150 feet. The approximate time for the flight over the 5.51 acres was 4:32 minutes. The drone flew to the start point and announced it was taking photographs. It completed the five passes for this particular survey and returned home. The Santa Ana winds are starting to come blow, so the survey took a bit longer returning at 5:45 mintues. Overall the transitions were smooth and the imagery is perfect.
The goal of this flight was to capture the christmas tree at the end of the pier. I was able to accomplish this simple task while using my drone autonomously. The application beyond for fun also shows that we can look at pier infrastrastructure before and after storm events to ensure integrity.
I suggest when doing infrastructure surveys on piers, it would be best to fly during low tide as to get the best images of the structure and reduce the amount of water variation.